Originally published in 1914, this was Lothrop Stoddard's first book, and a very popular one in its day. It was also his PhD thesis, defended at Harvard University at a time when the science of human biodiversity, and eugenics, was at its height. The book is about race: specifically, the race war that took place in San Domingo during the 1790s, triggered by the revolutionary events in France; that resulted in the island's independence, following fifteen years of chaos and bloody conflict; and that, through the victory of the values of liberty, equality, and brotherhood so ardently desired by the Jacobins, resulted in the famously dysfunctional republic of Haiti we know today. Stoddard details not only the events that took place in what was once one of the most prosperous colonies in the New World, but also the complex dynamics resulting from the intersection of race, class, colony, and motherland. Stoddard's portrayal of the Whites is hardly flattering, and it becomes clear in his text how they were the architects of their own misfortunes. Could what happened then and there happen here sometime in the future? Can we legitimately draw parallels between this lost colony and the modern West? This is for the reader to decide.
This new 2011 edition comes complete with a added index (the original text never had one), additional footnotes, modernised references footnote and format, an introduction by Professor Kevin MacDonald, and specially commissioned cover artwork by Alex Kurtagic (Mister, The Revolt Against Civilization)
Table of Contents
FOREWORD BY KEVIN MACDONALD xv
NOTE ON THE TEXT
I. INTRODUCTION AND EARLY HISTORY
Approach to San Domingo. Area. Spanish Con-quest. The Buccaneers. Their Impress on San Domingo.
II. NATURAL FEATURES,
POPULATION, AND GOVERNMENT
Contrast of French and Spanish San Domingo. French San Domingo: The North; The West; The South. Population. Climate. Government. Confu-sion of Powers. Character. The Judiciary. Economic Situation of San Domingo. Trade with France. The “Pacte Coloniale.” Its Results.
III. THE WHITES 23
Complex Structure of the White Population. Euro¬peans and Creoles. Sterility. The Official Caste. The Nobility. The Clergy. Irreligion. The Middle Class. The “Petits Blancs.” The Creoles. Wealth and Luxury. Consequences. Town Life. Country Life. The “Legend” of San Domingo.
IV. THE MULATTOES AND THE COLOR LINE 43
The “Free People of Color.” Mulattoes and Free Negroes. Concubinage. Increase of Mulattoes. The Color Line. Its Necessity. The “Law of Reversion.” Abhorrence of Miscegenation. Punishment of Renegades. Indelibility of Color. Status of the Mulattoes. The Mulatto Character.
V. THE SLAVES 57
Slavery. The Slave Population. Its Sterility. Slave Imports. The Slave Trade. Preponderance of Foreign-Born Negroes. Variety of Types. The African Negro. The Creole Negro. General Character. Religion. Condition. Work. Discipline. Legal Status. Actual Status. “Marronage.” The Maroon Negroes. Negro Revolts. Macandal.
VI. THE EVE OF THE
REVOLUTION IN SAN DOMINGO
States-Greneral. Discontent in San Domingo. The Idea of Colonial Representation. Beginning of the Movement. In France; in San Domingo. Propaganda in France. The Authorities in San Domingo. Colonial Opposition to Representation. Fear of the States-General; and of the Anti-Slavery Movement in France. Election of Deputies to the States-General The Government Falls into Impotence. Colonial Propaganda in the French Elections. The “Club Massiac.” The Struggle in the States-General. Fatal Results of Colonial Representation. Possibility that San Domingo Might Have Escaped the Revolution.
VII. FIRST STAGE OF THE
COLONIAL STRUGGLE IN FRANCE
Rapid Progress of the Revolution. Alarm of the Colonists. Plan of a Colonial Assembly. The Mulatto Agitation in France. The Colonial Committee. Its Report; and Decree of March 8, 1790. The “Instructions” of March 28. “Article 4.”
VIII. THE FIRST TROUBLES IN SAN DOMINGO
Latent Unrest at San Domingo. Effect of the “14th of July.” The Poor Whites Enter Politics. Flight of Barb6-Marbois. The Provincial Assemblies,—they call a Colonial Assembly. Mulatto Unrest. Negro Un¬rest. White Reprisals. Results. The Mulatto Rising of March, 1790. EffecU. Pofrsibility of a Govemment-Planter-Mulatto Alliance,—which is not Realized.
IX. THE ASSEMBLY OF SAINT-MARC
Character of the Colonial Assembly. It Draws up a Constitution. Its Nature. Tension between Govern¬ment and Assembly. Peynier’s Referendum. Beginning of Hostilities. The Chevalier Mauduit. The “Pompons Blancs.” The Mutiny of the Léopard. Mauduit’s coup d’état. Vincent’s Expedition. The Fall of Saint-Marc. The Assembly Leaves for France. The “Treaty of Léogane.” Unsettled State of the Col¬ony: the West; the South; the North. Lack of Union against the Revolution. Ogé’s Rebellion. Its Mean¬ing. Its Results. It Fails to Heal White Disunion. Overthrow of Royalism in the West. Realignment of Parties.
X. The Decree of May 15, 1791
Relative Security of the Colonial System till 1790. Attitude of French Conservatives; and of the Colo¬nists. Its Effect on the National Assembly. The Tide Changes trith 1791. Report of the Grand Committee. The Great Debate on the Colonies. The Bewbell Amendment. It Becomes the Decree of May 15, 1701. Its Results. Its Arrival in San Domingo, Its Recep¬tion. The new Colonial Assembly.
XI. THE NEGRO INSURRECTION IN THE NORTH
Its Outbreak. Premonitory Symptoms since 1789. White Disregard. First Negro Successes. Causes of White Inactivity: Mental Shock; Disaffection within Le Cap. Bravery of the Country Whites. Terrible Nature of the Struggle. Negro Leaders and Tactics. Primary Cause of the Insurrection. Contributory Re¬sponsibility of the French Radicals; of the Royalists; of the Colonists.
XII. THE MULATTO INSURRECTION IN THE WEST
The Mulattoes Resolve to Strike. The Royalists of the West. The Alliance of Royalists and Mulattoes. The Confederation of La-Croix-des-Bouquets. The Concordat of September. Its real Significance. Renewal of the Troubles. Arrival of the Decree of September 24, 1791. Its Effects. The Burning of Port-au-Prince. Race War in the West; and South.
XIII. THE FIRST CIVIL COMMISSIONERS
Character of the Commission; and of the Commis¬sioners. Their Arrival at San Domingo. Their Negotiations with the Negro Rebels. Their Failure. Its Results. Breach Between Commissioners and Assembly. The Commissioners and the West. Saint-Leger in the West. He returns to France. Crisis at Le Cap. The March Riots. Mirbeck Sails for France. Roume remains; to combat a Royalist Reaction.
XIV. THE LAW OF APRIL 4, 1792
Jacobin Hostility to the Decree of the 24th Sep-tem¬ber. Jacobin Power in the “Législatif.” Appeals from San Domingo. The Jacobins Prevent the Sending of Aid. Effect on San Domingo. The Jacobin Assault on the Colonial System. The Report of January 10, 1792. The Approach of Jacobin Victory. The Law of April 4, 1792. Effect on San Domingo. The “Council of Peace and Union.” Policy of Roume. His Journey to the West. Blanchelande in the South.
XV. THE SECOND CIVIL COMMISSIONERS
Coercive Nature ol the Law of the 4th of April. The Second Civil Commission, and Commissioners, Polverel, Ailhaud, Sonthonax. Opinions of their Character. Was There a Jacobin Plot? The Commissioners’ Instructions. Their Arrival at San Domingo. Their First Measures. Effect of the “Tenth of Au¬gust” on San Domingo. The Royalist Conspiracy. The Oc-tober Riots.
XVI. SONTHONAX’S RULE IN THE NORTH
Arrival of Rochambeau. Plans against the Color Line. The “Affaire Théron.” Polverel’s Voyage to the West. Sonthonax’s Rule at Le Cap. Remon-strances of Polverel. The December riots. Results. Increasing Difficulties. Foreign War. First Moves toward Emancipation.
XVII. POLVEREL’S GOVERNMENT OF THE WEST
Polverel at Saint-Marc; and at Port-au-Prince. His Alliance with the Town Whites. The Desertion of Ailhaud. Polverel in the South. The Break-Up of Western Royalism on the Color Line. Hyacinthe’s Maroon Rising. The Revolt of Port-au-Prince. Sonthonax in the West. Fall of Port-au-Prince. Rigaud’s Defeat.
XVIII. THE DESTRUCTION OF LE CAP
Unrest at Le Cap. The Arrival of Galbaud. Alarm of the Commissioners. They Return to Le Cap. The Revolt of the Fleet. The Destruction of Le Cap. Attitude of the Conunissioners.
Exodus of the White Population; and of the White Troops. Advance of the Spaniards. State of Le Cap. Sonthonax’s New Policy. His Emancipation Proclamation. Its Extension to the West and South. Its Effects. Sonthonax’s Perilous Situation. His Flight to the West.
XX. THE ENGLISH INTERVENTION
White Desire for English Aid. The Grande Anse Calls in the English; and receives a British Garri-son. Sur¬render of the Môle-Saint-Nicolas. Defection of the West. Hopeless Condition of the North. Attitude of the Commissioners. Defection of the Mulattoes. The Convention Decrees the Commissioners in a Slate of Accusation. It is Disregarded. Anti-Colonial Feeling in France. The Convention Abolishes Slavery. Effect on San Domingo. The Commissioners leave for France.
XXI. THE ADVENT OF TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE
His Early Life. His First Acts. Tonasaint in Spanish Service. He Changes Sides. Campaign Against the English (1794). The Campaign of 1795. Rivalry of the Colored Castes. Rigaud’s Role in the South. Toussaint’s Policy in the West. Rigaud’s Policy in the North. The Mulatto Troubles at Le Cap. The Rising of the 30th Ventôse. Its Resohs.
XXII. THE THIRD CIVIL COMMISSIONERS
The Third Civil Commission; and Commission-ers. Their First Acts. Sonthonax’s Policy. Its Results in the North; and South. Policy of Sonthonax and Toussaint. Toussaint Expels Sonthonax. His Fears of its Effect on France. His Attitude.
XXIII. THE MISSION OF GENERAL HÉDOUVILLE
Reasons for his Mission. Toussaint’s English Policy. Hédouville’s Policy. His Clash with Toussaint Over the English Evacuation. The Expulsion of Hédou¬ville.
XXIV. THE WAR BETWEEN THE CASTES 297
Toussaint’s Difficulties. He Gains over Roume. The Conference Between Toussaint and Rigaud. The War Between the Castes. The Siege of Jacmel. The Conquest of the South. The “Bloody Assize” of Dessalines. The Ruin of the West.
XXV. THE TRIUMPH OF TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE 305
Toussaint’s Projects Against Santo Domingo. Op-po¬sition of Roume. It is Broken. Bonaparte’s Commis¬sion. The Resistance of Santo Domingo. Its Conquest by Toussaint. Condition of French San Do¬mingo. Toussaint’s Reconstruction of San Domingo. His Favor to the Whites. Moyse’s Rebellion. Toussaint’s Constitution.
XXVI. THE ADVENT OF BONAPARTE 317
The Colonies at the 18th Brumaire. Napoleon’s Con¬stitutional Changes. Conflicting Views on the Future Colonial Policy of France. First Abortive Expedition for San Domingo. Further Tentative Measures. The English Peace Frees Napoleon’s Hands. Leclerc’s Instructions.
XXVII. THE COMING OF LECLERC 329
Lederc’s Arrival at San Domingo. Toussaint’s Attitude. His Position. Lederc’s Plan. Fall of Le Cap; and Port-au-Prince. Surrender of the South; and of Santo Domingo. Dessalines’s Failure at Léogane. Lederc’s Negotiations with Toussaint. Capture of Port-de-Paix. Lederc’s Campaign. Toussaint’s Defeat at Couleuvres. Dessalines’s Defence of the West. His Failure at Port-au-Prince. Humbert’s Defeat at Port-de-Paiz. Capitulation of Maurepas. Siege of the Crête-à-Pierrot. Effect of its Capture. Submission of the Black Generals. Necessity for Lederc’s Policy of Conciliation.
XXVIII. THE COMING OF THE YELLOW FEVER 347
Yellow Fever. Toussaint’s Arrest. Its Effects. Toussaint’s End. The Disarmament. Napoleon’s Reactionary Policy. Lederc’s Alarm. The Reaction at Guadeloupe. Its Effect on San Domingo. Loyalty of the Black Generals. Lederc’s Despair. Ravages of the Fever. The Death of Lederc.
XIX. THE LAST PHASE 363
Defection of the Mulattoes. Their Attack on Le Cap. Defection of the Black Generals. Improve-ment under Rochambeau. Terrible Nature of the Struggle. The English War. The Loss of San Do-mingo. The Extermination of the Whites. The End of “San Domingo.”